A geohazard is a geological process that may lead to widespread damage or risk to human or his environment. Geohazards are geological and environmental conditions and involve long-term or short-term geological processes. In contemporary aspect, disasters are considered as the consequence of inappropriately managed risk. These risks are the product of hazards and vulnerability. Hazards that strike in areas with low vulnerability are not considered a disaster, as is the case in uninhabited regions. Developing countries suffer the greatest costs when a disaster hits – more than 95 percent of all deaths caused by disasters occur in developing countries, and losses due to natural disasters are 20 times greater (as a percentage of GDP) in developing countries than in industrialized countries.
A natural disaster is the effect of a natural hazard (e.g., flood, tornado, hurricane, volcanic eruption, earthquake, or landslide) that affects the environment, and leads to financial, environmental and/or human losses. The resulting loss depends on the capacity of the population to support or resist the disaster, and their resilience. This understanding is concentrated in the formulation: "disasters occur when hazards meet vulnerability". A natural hazard will hence never result in a natural disaster in areas without vulnerability, e.g. strong earthquakes in uninhabited areas. The term natural has consequently been disputed because the events simply are not hazards or disasters without human involvement. Natural disasters which occur as results of plate tectonics are earthquakes, volcanoes, geyser eruptions and tsunamis.
Plate tectonics meanwhile results in geological environments which are beneficial to human societies. Many important mineral deposits of the world are concentrated along convergent plate margins. Major oil and gas reserves are placed along passive margins which have later developed into collisional belts. Understanding the cons and pros of tectonics and structural geology helps the societies to prevent or reduce damages from geohazards, and make a better use of geological environments and natural resources in a sustainable manner.
Geological Survey of Iran (GSI) is planning to organize “the 4th Young Earth Scientists Congress” in Tehran, in August 2017. One of the themes of this congress is allocated to “Tectonics and Geohazards” which intends to provide a qualified platform for young earth scientists to present their activities in this field. We hope that your kind contribution puts light on scientific life of our young friends and strengthen mutual boundaries in near future. Please join us in this event and share with us your experience in Tectonics and Geohazards. Looking forward to meeting you in Tehran.
The scientific topics of presentations are as follows:
1.1. Landslides and avalanches
1.3. Volcanic eruptions and Lahars
2. Water disasters
2.2. Limnic eruptions
3. Weather disasters
3.2. Cyclonic storms
3.5. Heat waves
4. Fire disasters
5. Health and disease disasters
6. Space disasters
6.1. Gamma ray bursts
6.2. Impact events
6.3. Solar flares
6.4. Supernovae and hypernovae